Fusarium Stem and Fruit Rot of Greenhouse Pepper

Introduction

The disease was found in 1991 due to black pepper in commercial greenhouses in Ontario and British Columbia, Canada. Fruit production and plant losses were about 5%. Fusarium solani can attack a number of plants, including greenhouse vegetables. Many physiologic races were adapted to specific hosts.

 

Symptoms:

Soft, dark brown or black cancers are formed on the trunk, usually at the nodes or wound sites. It can bend the trunk in later stages of disease development. The inner part of the stem has a dark brown color that can cover considerable distances. At the end of the lesions can produce cinnamon or light orange color, very small (<1 mm diameter), flask-shaped fruiting structure known as paresthesia, which is the fungus-bearing body.

Fusarium stem and fruit rot of greenhouse pepper

Black cankers on the pepper stem due to fusarium solani

External and internal dark brown discolouration of pepper stems

     Fungal growth on pepper stem

  Pepper plant with wilting symptoms due to fusarium solani

Black lesions around the calyx of pepper fruit

Internal and External stem symptoms due to Erwinia

 

Disease cycle and environmental conditions

 

The fungus development cycle has 2 stages and both occur simultaneously on the black pepper stem / crown tissue.

The perfect stage (Nectaria hematococca) is where the sex is reinforced and the fungus spores, called ascospores, are produced in the cinnamon-colored peritoneum.

This flask-shaped fruiting structure will arise during the later stages of disease development on the stem under high humidity conditions. British Columbia research has revealed that seeds are forcibly removed at night, about 1-2 meters from the peritoneum.

It is the main source of natural disassembly in British Columbia greenhouses. The release of ovaries at night is more suitable for disease development as more relative humidity and even dew occur during this time.

Other spores, called conidia, are produced in large quantities and in large quantities during incomplete phase (Fusarium solani) they are not excreted, but are inactive, and therefore they are green.

Natural disasters are not so important in the house. This can be done by spraying water, cutting knives and other tools, on clothing or by the hands of laborers.

Ascospore germination occurs over long periods of high humidity (ie greater than 95). Greenhouse experiments show that relatively 90% periods of idity humidity in the greenhouse are really high at the leaf level and therefore support Nectaria hematococcus scorosis.

Increased temperatures early in the morning or late (after sunrise) can lead to good conditions for formation of ascites and germination of ascospores because dew point temperatures are higher than fruit and stem temperatures.

A slow temperature rise of 1 ° C per hour ensures that the temperature of the fruit and trunk reaches its target the day before sunrise. Also, if the greenhouse has banned ventilation and drainage, this could create a “wet” climate that could exploit N.

hematococcus ascospore germination. The rock wall and peritiasis on the fruit sores provide more aerial molecules, when, with a wet house climate, it can result in numerous fruit and starch infections.

Other factors, such as over-watering rock wall blocks, can exert pressure on plants through lack of oxygen, resulting in a higher incidence of crown lesions.

Therefore, aggressive greenhouse climate management that avoids high relative humidity extension periods, and precisely adjusted drip irrigation that is present on the blocks from the start of the growing season even if the disease increases. If not avoided, can reduce the incidence of illness.

Under unfavorable climatic conditions, scoliosis on plant surfaces can survive for several days unless there is free moisture for infection or an almost saturated environment. However, free from seed crops will not survive for 3-6 weeks. Warm days with volatile relative humidity are detrimental to ascospore survival.

Fusarium solani is extremely common in Canada and is a bacterial fungus, which means it can colonize dead or dying plant tissues. It can produce a handful of rocks called chlamydospores that can last for years.

The fungus can attack the noodles or the soil line with black pepper trunks, taking advantage of wounds resulting from harvest or salt damage.

The fastest growing, aromatic crops are the most susceptible, as are the ripe fruits compared to the green fruits. Fruits that are damaged, especially around the calyx, are at high risk of infection and can persist in mold storage.

Usually healthy, unripe fruits are not attacked. The fungus can colonize the fallen or aborted fruits and the sunshine flowers.

Farmers in British Columbia have noted the presence of fungus-bearing bodies on rock wall blocks that are introduced into the greenhouse after the propagation process and during the early part of plant growth.

Rockwall blocks can provide the fungus with the opportunity to survive up to invasive climatic periods in the greenhouse throughout the leap season.

When conditions are favorable for the release and infection of the pepper plants, then the ascospores can be released from the fruiting structure on the rock wall.

Because rockwall blocks hold constant moisture, this creates ideal conditions for the release of gauze even if the greenhouse climate is not so suitable.

Pathogens can also be introduced accidentally by means of tools and equipment that carry sick debris from nearby greenhouses. When patients move from an infected area to a disease-free zone or to another greenhouse, workers can move seeds through their shoes and clothing.

Infections without symptomatic development (latent infection) occur with symptomatic development on crown tissues as soon as 2 to 3 months or at the end of the season. Symptom development due to plant stress can result in heavy fruit loads, environmental adverse conditions.

 

Option:

 

Include cultural practices, prevention, sanitation, environmental and biological control measures in the greenhouse integrated disease management program for this issue.

Cultural practices:

  • Do not allow rock wall blocks to dry at the top as harmful levels of fertilizer salts may accumulate around the stem base and thus favor infection.
  • Avoid dripping the fertilizer solution on the stem base by keeping the dripper away from the stem base.
  • Avoid excessive amounts of fertilizers that aid in the damage to salt.
  • Avoid wrapping crop production because airborne Nectaria hematococca herbs can spread from old crop to early seeded peppers.

Prevention:

  • Carefully check the rock hole blocks for the presence of fungus mycelium or fungal flowering bodies to make sure that the fungus molecule has not entered the greenhouse.
  • Early detection of this disease increases the chances of elimination.
  • Review transplants carefully for symptoms such as strep throat or cell lesions.
  • Only use plants that look healthy as a transplant.
  • Bring the suspected plants to a specialist or plant disease clinic for diagnosis, since the symptoms of the primary cells are often similar to those caused by the bacterial disease of chilli, Arunia carotura, subtype Carotora.
  • General Chat Lounge Make sure all workers are aware of the symptoms of the disease and instruct the administration on the first signs of these symptoms.
  • Identify sick plants with colored tape to alert workers.
  • Make sure workers are aware of the spread of the stench if they touch the growing media with their hands or clothing or the affected plants.
  • last After working for the last time in the affected areas of the greenhouse, where the disease has not been seen.
  • Do not move vehicles and boxes in infected areas. Keep visitors away from the affected areas.

Cleaning:

Media:

  • Remove slabs, bags, cubes or other media that have already been infected with plants.
  • Unless the same material is changed again until it is steam-free.
  • Remove and remove str wires that can prevent ghosts from infected plants.
  • If the crop is grown in the soil, disinfect the beds.
  • soil Remove or bury the growing media far away from the greenhouse.

Plant / Plants Debris:

 

  • Good hygiene and clean harvests of the crops will help to control the disease. Because the fungus has a saprophytic stage, it can easily consume dead fruits, flowers or leaves and later form blooming bodies that spread to these colonic tissues.
  • Therefore, removing pepper debris from the greenhouse streets is very important if the disease has been observed in a particular greenhouse.
  • Avoid dealing with sick plants and fruits.
  • Carefully remove them from the greenhouse, be sure not to touch the affected parts of the adjacent plants and keep them in plastic bags.
  • Remove diseased material at a location far from the greenhouses to ensure that the fungus inoculum or subsequent erosion molecule is returned to the greenhouses by insects such as workers, wind, tires and coastal flies and fungus jets. Is not kept Additionally, remove about 1-2 plants on both sides of the plant that have symptoms and place in the trash bag.
  • If the material is piled in a pile, make sure that the pile is as far away from the greenhouse as possible.

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